Trade Agreements Between France And Germany

By deciding to organize the last Franco-German Council of Ministers in Toulouse, France and Germany wanted to highlight one of the main successes of their industrial cooperation. As the headquarters of Airbus, Toulouse appears as the symbol of an effective Franco-German cooperation, capable of leading other member states, testifying to the ability of both countries to promote “European champions”. While the World Trade Organization (WTO) has just authorized Washington to impose taxes on European products in retaliation for the subsidies granted to Airbus, Toulouse is also proving to be the symbol of a Europe engaged in a trade war against the United States. Nevertheless, the EU27 survey shows that there is potential for a common European approach to Russia, with a majority of respondents favouring this option in most Member States. However, ECFR`s Policy Intentions Mapping shows that it will be difficult to overcome the differences in content between them. The federal government, which still insists on the need for dialogue with Moscow, has also not bought Macron`s initiative to move closer to Russia. Only Italy, Austria, Belgium, Greece, Croatia and Bulgaria are in favour of such a rapprochement – while most others want to either maintain restrictive measures against Russia as long as it mis behaves, or (in the case of Poland and Lithuania) implement a containment policy for the country. The alternative explanation for Germany`s depriororisation of European defence (as for other Europeans) could lie in the desire to avoid further divisions within the EU. It is possible that Germany acknowledged last year that Europeans` views on common defence differed quite dramatically – and so decided not to look into the matter. This could be part of efforts to appease Macron and avoid undermining Franco-German cohesion. Germany and France have different ambitions in terms of European defence.

For most German policymakers, including in the Defense Ministry and the Federal Army, NATO, led by the United States, remains the key to German defense. They see all efforts to build European defence as a means of strengthening NATO`s European pillar. France has traditionally had a more skeptical view of NATO, and under Macron it has more seriously expressed the idea that the alliance could fail, forcing Europeans to guarantee their own security. Because of their consensual approach to policy-making, Germans often depriororize areas where they see a possibility of conflict. Thus, The German defence position could be seen as an acknowledgement of the fact that, given the fact that its views differ from those of France, it is preferable to pose the long-term issue as a risk of disagreement. In addition, disagreements over defence between members of the German government coalition make them relatively reluctant to deal with the issue at european level. The death of Charlemagne`s son of the Great Louis-des-Pieux and the subsequent division of the French Kingdom in the Treaty of Verdun in 843 marked the end of a single state. While the population of the Western and Eastern kingdoms had relatively homogeneous language groups (Gallo-Romance in Western Franconia and Low German and High German in eastern France), the Middle Franconian was only a strip of a most blurred but culturally rich linguistic border area, for example between the Meuse and Rhine rivers – and soon split. Under the Treaty of Ribemont of 880, the boundary between the western and eastern kingdoms remained virtually unchanged for about 600 years.

Germany pursued a centuries-old bond with Italy, while France took closer relations with England. .