November 18, 2004 – The Russian Federation ratifies the protocol. An important directive in the agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while taking steps to limit them to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also provides developed countries with the opportunity to help developing countries and provides a framework for transparent monitoring and communication of countries` climate goals. On 8 December 2012, at the end of the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, an agreement was reached to extend the protocol until 2020 and set a date for 2015 for the development of a new document to be implemented from 2020 (see more information under the direction of e. Mail).  The outcome of the Doha negotiations received mixed reactions, with small island states critical of the package as a whole. The second Kyoto commitment period applies to about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions per year. Other conference outcomes are a timetable for a comprehensive agreement that is expected to be adopted by 2015 and will encompass all countries.  At the Doha meeting of the parties to the UNFCCC on 8 December 2012, the European Union`s chief climate negotiator, Artur Runge-Metzger, pledged to extend the binding treaty for the 27 European Member States until 2020 until 2020 until 2020. In 2016, when the Paris climate agreement came into force, the United States was one of the main architects of the agreement, and President Obama hailed it as “a tribute to American leaders.” Then presidential candidate Donald Trump criticized the deal as a bad deal for the American people and promised to withdraw the United States if elected.
After a series of lectures entangled in differences of opinion, the delegates of COP21, held in Paris in 2015, signed a comprehensive but non-binding agreement to limit the rise in global average temperature to a maximum of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels, while maintaining this increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. The pioneering agreement, signed by the 196 signatories of the UNFCCC, effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, a review of progress every five years and the development of a $100 billion fund by 2020 – which was to be replenished annually – was imposed to help developing countries implement technologies that are not generated by greenhouse gases. The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) held in Kyoto (The Protocol divided countries into two groups: Schedule I included industrialized countries and non-annex I related to developing countries. The protocol has set emission restrictions only for Schedule I countries. Non-Schedule I countries have participated in projects to reduce emissions in their countries. Although the Kyoto Protocol was a diplomatic breakthrough, its success was far from certain.
Indeed, reports published in the first two years after the treaty came into force indicated that most participants would not meet their emissions targets. However, even if the goals were met, the ultimate environmental benefits would not matter, according to some critics, since China, the world`s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and the United States, the world`s second largest emitter, were not bound by the protocol (China because of its status as a developing country and the United States because it had not ratified the protocol).