Durand Agreement

The Durand Line is the 2,640-kilometre border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. This is the result of an agreement between Sir Mortimer Durand, a secretary of the Anglo-Indian government, and Abdur Rahman Khan, the emir or ruler of Afghanistan. The agreement was signed on November 12, 1893 in Kabul, Afghanistan. The Durand Line has served as the official border between the two nations for more than a hundred years, but it has generated controversial information for the people who live there. When the Durand Line was created in 1893, Pakistan was still part of India. India was in turn controlled by the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom ruled India from 1858 until India`s independence in 1947. Pakistan also became a nation in 1947.Punjabis and Pashtuns There are two large ethnic groups near the Durand Line. These two groups are Punjabis and Pashtuns. Most Punjabis and Pashtuns are Sunni Muslims. Punjabis is the largest ethnic group in Pakistan.

Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. There are also many Pashtuns in northwestern Pakistan, where they dominated more than 103,600 square kilometres of territory before being defeated by the British in 1847. At that time, the Pashtuns were fighting to prevent the Punjabis from developing in the mountains of southeastern Afghanistan. The British founded the Durand Line after conquering the Pashtuns. 85 per cent of the Durand Line follow rivers and other physical characteristics, not ethnic boundaries. It divided the Pashtuns into two distinct countries. Regular skirmishes and tensions between Pakistani and Afghan security personnel along the disputed border are greatly worsening already deteriorating bilateral relations, with each side accusing the other of dishonesty in the fight against terrorism. Violent clashes near the Shaman border crossing in early May 2017 left at least 13 people dead and more than 80 injured, mostly Pakistanis. [1] Pakistan claimed that Afghan security forces had been informed in advance of census activities along the border areas. The Afghan side argued that the Pakistani authorities had been warned that they would not conduct censuses in divided villages located at the “zero point of the Durand Line”. After the incident, an editorial in The Dawn speculated: “Perhaps we should send a signal in the ongoing diplomatic and security clashes between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Or perhaps it was Afghanistan`s centuries-old refusal to officially recognize the Durand Line – the census seems to be a threat, because it would officially count villagers on the Pakistani side of the border as Pakistani citizens. [2] Diplomatic back-and-forth after border conflicts may temporarily ease bilateral tensions, but given the complex nature of the problem resulting from conflicting interpretations, there does not appear to be a solution to the non-Afghan-Pakistani at the Durand Line.

The resulting agreement or treaty led to the creation of a new province then called the Northwest Border Province, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province in Pakistan that includes FATA and border regions. It also allowed Afghanistan to receive Nuristan and Wakhan. The above articles are regarded by the Government of India and the Amir of Afghanistan as a comprehensive and satisfactory settlement of all the essential differences of opinion that have arisen between them on the border; and the Government of India and His Highness, the Amir, pledge that all differences in detail, as they must be taken into account below by the officers appointed to delineate the border, must be resolved in a spirit of friendship, in order to eliminate, as far as possible, all causes of doubt and misunderstanding between the two governments.